Category Archives: Water

More “crop per drop”Rice Terrace

We use more water for agriculture than for any other human activity on the planet, so water sustainability and food security are closely linked. And as demand for water increases — for domestic, industrial, and other uses, as well as for in-stream flows for nature, fishing, and recreation –demand for food expands as well due to our growing populations and changing diets. This dilemma will only create more pressure to optimize the efficiency of water use in crop production.

But how do we know where we might get more food “bang” for our water “buck”?  I recently led a study evaluating how crop water productivity — the amount of crop produced per drop of water used — varies across the globe. We discovered that it varies significantly, even between places that have about the same climate. This shows that there is a “water gap” in some areas, which means they could be getting a lot more crop per drop. Continue reading

Not Toba’s faultmalawi barge

Tom Johnson, a University of Minnesota Duluth Regents professor and Institute on the Environment resident fellow, knew his work on Lake Malawi in 2005 would yield significant scientific discoveries. Now, eight years later, he and his colleagues have announced research that impacts our knowledge of the near extinction of the human race. They have determined that 75,000 years ago, the Toba volcanic eruption in Sumatra did not cause a volcanic winter or the dramatic drop in human population in Africa, as some anthropologists had proposed.
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The case of too much or too little nitrogen fertilizerNational Geographic

Many of the increases in food production during the Green Revolution can be attributed to a single element in the periodic table — nitrogen. Begun in the early 1900s as an effort to convert nitrogen gas from the air we breathe into a solid form that could propel ammunition farther, the Haber-Bosch process later became the key mechanism for boosting crop yields through mass production of nitrogen fertilizer. Unfortunately, excess nitrogen degrades our drinking water quality, causes many coastal areas to be oxygen-depleted “dead zones,” and adds a very powerful greenhouse gas to our atmosphere. How can we manage our farmlands more effectively?
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Frontiers: A mangrove lagoon in the time of climate changeMangrove

Imagine living in a region where your livelihood depended on the frequent flooding of your property.  David Lipset has lived with and chronicled the lives of people who make such a location their home. He shared how a population of roughly 3,000 in the Murik Lakes region of Papua New Guinea is being effected by rising sea levels at the March 6 Frontiers in the Environment seminar, “A Mangrove Lagoon in the Time of Climate Change: The Politics, Science and Culture of an Intertidal Environment in Papua New Guinea.”
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Frontiers: Clean water, wild places, healthy communitiesWatersheds

Tim Bristol is playing offense. That’s how the Trout Unlimited Alaska director described his group’s efforts to protect Alaska’s vital watersheds at the Feb. 20 Frontiers in the Environment seminar, “Watersheds: Clean Water, Wild Places, Healthy Communities.”

Trout Unlimited Alaska is fighting to protect two critical habitats and communities that rely on them: Bristol Bay in southwestern Alaska and the Tongass National Forest in the southeastern panhandle. Both areas boast productive salmon fisheries that have vital economic benefit to the communities that rely on them, said Bristol. Both are at risk from development projects that threaten the health of their watersheds.
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